User interface for timeline-based animation
Existing animation programs (Free & non-Free)
- MacromediaFlash is a good non-Free example.
- Ikivo Animator is a good non-Free example producing SVG Tiny animations (http://www.ikivo.com/animator/index.html)
- Macromedia Director prior to version MX had a different interface (http://www.rice.edu/fondren/erc/howto/director.html) which I prefer(ed) over Flash
- QFlash is a FUNCTIONAL free-software mock-up of the Flash 4 interface, which can import SVG files but not edit them. (http://qflash.sourceforge.net)
- F4l is a non-functional free-software mock-up of the Flash 4 interface.(http://f4l.sf.net/)
- Anime Studio, formerly known as Moho (http://www.e-frontier.com/article/articleview/1913/1/793?sbss=793) a non-free example. (Written in Java.) Features skeletal animation and automatic tweening of vector operations, view screenshot.
- LimSee2 (http://wam.inrialpes.fr/software/limsee2/) is an excellent almost-free basis. (visible-source limited-use license)
- Spalah Flash (http://spalah.sourceforge.net/?p=10) (not to be confused with Spalah CMS) "is a GTK2/GNOME2 based application for generating Macromedia SWF and W3C SVG animations." The GUI is today minimalist but the author is trying to integrate it with inkscape. See http://spalah.sourceforge.net/?p=19
- SMIL 2.1 player: http://www.cwi.nl/projects/Ambulant/distPlayer.html (GPL)
- Bob Sabiston's proprietary animation software http://www.flatblackfilms.com
- Synfig (link) is a film-quality 2D vector animation editor and renderer. (GPL)
- Ktoon (http://ktoon.toonka.com/) is a 2D Animation Toolkit designed by animators for animators, focused to the Cartoon Industry. (GPL)
- Jahshaka (http://www.jahshaka.org/) multiplatform QT animation program powered mostly by OpenGL (GPL)
- Powerpoint (http://office.microsoft.com) has an easy but basic interface. No flash killer, but some nice ideas.
- Synfig (http://www.synfig.com/)(I think it is GPL) Features image morphing between drawings and output animation that is resolution independent both visually and temporally.
- The Tab (http://www.the-tab.com/) Another non-free example that features elegant systems for parent-child animation and a very interesting feature that is designed for pseudo-3D camera moves.
- Pencil (http://www.les-stooges.org/pascal/pencil/index.php?id=Home)
Back in the '80's there was a program on Apple IIE (Amiga and MS-DOS too) called "Fantavision". It allowed one to create vector artwork (although I didn't understand at the time that that was what it was called) and animations. It allowed one to create frames of animation where you manually repositioned, recolored, scaled, rotated etc. the objects from one frame to the next. However, it then automatically interpolated frames between the 2 frames (the number of interpolated frames was configurable) such that it create a smooth transition of the object moving from one frame to the other. The effect was very similiar to the "Morphing" effect for raster graphics (popularized in a Michael Jackson video, I believe). That is, the system calculated the trajectory of "Key Points" of the objects from one frame to the next. This process is often called "Tweening" (a term used by Macromedia Flash). Skencil (formerly known as Sketch) supports this functionality and describes it as "Blending".
I guess what I'm saying is that I think a nice interface to create animations would be similiar. So to animate you would do the following:
- Draw the initial SVG Image
- Increment Frame (from say 1 to 20)
- Reposition the elements in frame 20 (including scaling, color changes, adding removing objects, etc, etc, etc)
- System would then calculate a trajectory for each key point from frame 1 to frame 20. Trajectories would be calculated for things like:
- Each "node" of an object
- Transformation Matrix
- You could display/manipulate the trajectories (using the trajectory editor shown above by the original creator of this topic)
- The system would then store the animations using SVG trajectories and the "Key Points" would be the frames you manually created
- So, to create say a 100 frame animation, one might only need to manually create/modify 10 frames and the system would interpolate the additional frames as necessary.
- Also, once the system interpolated frames it would allow you to manually modify the interpolated frames creating further "Key Points" and allow further refinement and interpolation.
NOTE: 3D apps such as blender also use a technique like this, which I think is most widely known as "keyframe animation" or simply "keyframing". However, many such systems tie the keys too closely to actual animation frames, and this creates problems when the frames-per-second rate changes. Particularly in the case of vector apps which are not so low-level as bitmaps and animation frames, I would suggest that frames should be as abstract as possible.
Having key positions in simple percentages of the total animation time might be a better solution. This would also need to be a global/local system, of course: animated objects would have their own animation time specified when inserted into a larger document. A character's walkcycle would end at 100%, but in the larger animation, it would perhaps only be 5% of the total time, yet repeating as the object moves across the screen.
One issue with this abstraction of frames might be that important animation effects do not occur exactly within frames: small things could be mistimed, or simply missed altogether. If you set the frame rate too low, this would be an obvious side effect, so it's not necessarily a problem that Inkscape should try to fix. On the other hand, a few things could be done to ease this. For instance, "snapping" animation events to frames when exporting (thereby slightly altering the timing), or perhaps just warning that certain animation events are not visible at such a low frame rate.
Of course, on the web, with SVG and DHTML, where most Inkscape animations will hopefully be used one day, frames are not an issue at all, and we just worry about keys in time :)
ANOTHER NOTE: Interpolation does not necessarily occur along straight lines and linearly in time. Paths are already part of Inkscape, so points could move along paths; also he time-length graph can be something like a path, instead of a straight line.
I have used jahshaka for a small animation. This was my first real experience with animation. Thought rough, jahshaka is all about key frames and setting properties for those key frames.
Things I liked
- Key frames are on a per object basis
- When an object is selected you can quickly move from one key frame to another
- properties values for rotation can span beyond 0 and 360, permetting to set three or more complete rotation with too key frame. I think this kind of feature could be used for all bounded values (like color, transparency and so on). Is this compatible with SVG or should it be an artifact ?
- representation of properties values on a time line graph. This functionnality was still not very usable, but being to interact through that kind of object could be very useful (see below)
Things that lacks (and Inkscape shall have)
- possibility to copy animation properties from one object to another (say copy color animation, or whole animation)
- possibility to modify a property value for all key frames at once (eg. translation of object for all key frames or a selcted group). I think this could happen through the value = f(time) graph metioned above. You could select points (representing keyframes) and move them up (more), down (less), right (sooner). This graph could be organised by properties set (color, position). I think this kind of graph would be very close to SVG animations tag.
- macro that helps sets common effects (like blinking for example, or crossing the screen....)
Bob Sabiston Example
Bob Sabiston's animation software is an amazing vector-based package that stores line width within the points that make up a line -- derived from a tablet pen. usually in a simple stroke there could be a hundred data points storing width information. Then in the next keyframe, a line from a previous key is selected and re-drawn restricted to the same number of points. The software allow sthe points to be "repositioned" as you watch their previous locations be re-positioned. When you run out, the line ends automatically. This information is interpolated in tweening frames to change shape, width, position, but retains the same number of data-points. See the film "Waking Life" for the making-of video for a demonstration. Also visit his website for examples of it's capabilities converted to flash. http://www.flatblackfilms.com
Suggestion from someone else: working like CinePaint (compared with Gimp), with each frame independently from each svg document (working like this or providing this feature) - providing vectorial edition quality we can't get on apps like Macromedia Flash or any other (maybe ToonBoom or Moho) - allowing us to make our work fast publish without further lack of quality. (One more suggestion about it: being able to convert .swf to .svg sequence (or animated .sgv) and vice versa.)
It is suggested that there be basically two modes: Local (Object) mode and Global mode. Below is a picture showing a very rough design of the local mode:
In local modes, all properties of the object editing will be shown on a timeline, and one can create and edit frame within the timeline. Then one may assign different value of that properties on different timeline, or make it change linearly, or nonlinearly :)
You select an object and add types of animation. These are listed in the custom animation pane. They can be set to occur all at once, one at a time, onclick, with previous or after previous. A number appears next to each object in the editing window when the object has animation applied to it, representing the sequence of the animations. When an object has an Entrance type animation added to it as the first animation, it will not appear on screen until the timeline reaches this point. animations can be linked together to create quite complicated sequences.
As an animator, one of the features I find most useful is the ability to view a series of frames layered on top of each other (called "onion skinning"). They don't need to be key frames, or even tied to a particular frame rate, just be representative of the state at regular time intervals. It's much more intuitive than looking at a graph of position vs. time or whatever you are animating. After all this is a tool to be creative with, and graphs are more suited to thinking like an engineer.
I have started using svg to develop interactive displays. Having used several other svg tools currently on the market, I am interested in a more generic implementation that doesn't have animation effects get in the way of interactive controls.